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Weeds

Weeds

Whether you are retrofitting an existing garden, creating a new garden, or managing rural land, plant selection and weed control is very important to ensure that weeds do not spread to our precious reserves and bushland areas.

Weeds are invading our region’s bushland areas and are a threat to their environmental value and the unique biodiversity of the Geographe region. This resource will help you identify significant environmental weed species that are particularly harmful to our natural areas and give tips on removing them.

 
What is a weed?
 
Any introduced plant that grows vigorously or reproduces easily is a potential weed. Weeds can reduce biodiversity, or adversely affect the integrity, conservation value and processes of ecosystems. Environmental weeds take over bushland, smothering and competing with local native plants for space, nutrients and sunlight.

Many of the weeds threatening our bushland are escaped garden plants. You can help conserve our natural areas by planting local native plants instead of weeds or other introduced plants.

What can you do to help?

Weeds are spread by wind, water, animals and inappropriate disposal of unwanted plant material. Seeds are easily transported on dirty vehicles, tyres, boots and clothing. Here is how you can help:

  • Prevention is the most effective method of weed control. If you already have weeds growing, correct identification and a planned method of control is vital to halt their spread.
  • Ongoing monitoring and maintenance is required to prevent re-establishment of weeds.
  • Unwanted plant material should be disposed of by composting or taking to landfill.
  • If you have arum lilies on your property, consider joining the Arum Lily Blitz: an annual eradication program run by Nature Conservation Margaret River Region.
  • Plant native plant species that require less watering and particularly avoid species that can become weeds (natives from other states or exotic species)
  • Dispose of your garden greens (lawn clippings, prunings, and weeds) responsibly. You can mulch or compost them to reuse as soil conditioners to improve your soil. 
  • If you can not compost your weeds, place them in your household bin or use a garden bin service.
 

Weeds and our wetlands

Weeds are a serious threat to wetlands. Weeds compete for space, nutrients and water in areas where native plant species occur. Weed invasion also raises fire risk as a result of increased fuel loads.

The spread of weeds in urban wetlands is closely linked to dumping of garden refuse and garden escapees (where exotic garden varieties ‘escape’ into wetlands by seed dispersal or vegetative growth).

Some aquatic species also very quickly become serious environmental weeds and alter the aquatic habitats that native wildlife depend on.

 

How to report a weed in the Geographe Catchment (or anywhere in Western Australia)

Click here to report a weed using MyPestGuide® Reporter.

Resources
 
Photo credits
 
 

Download Southern weeds and their control

Download Woody Weeds of the Cape Naturaliste to Cape Leeuwin Region

Download Weed it Out! For residents in the Shire of Capel and landowners in the South West

Download Weed Wattles: Acacia Species

 
Other website resources
Join the Arum Lily Blitz: Nature Conservation Margaret River Region
City of Busselton weed resources
Lucidcentral Environmental Weeds of Australia
Western Weeds
 
 
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Buayanyup

The headwaters of the Buayanyup River occur in state forest where four tributaries flow through native vegetation before flowing through agricultural land. The lower section has been straightened into drainage channels, before flowing into Geographe Bay at Abbey.

The Buayanyup River catchment has a diversity of land uses, including beef and dairy farming, vineyards and horticulture. Native vegetation and timber plantations occur in the south eastern corner of the catchment, and the growing townsite of Vasse occurs in the lower catchment. Nutrients, particularly nitrogen, enter the river from dairy and beef grazing, dairy sheds and horticulture.

Native species, including the Western Minnow, Western Pygmy Perch , Nightfish, Blue-spot Goby, Gilgie, Smooth Marron, Freshwater Shrimp, Koonac and Long neck turtle, have all been found in the river.

Five Mile

Five Mile Brook is a small waterway in the north of the catchment. It flows seasonally to Geographe Bay near Minninup Beach. Five Mile Brook is surrounded by agriculture, particular beef farming, with some urban areas at the south of Dalyellup Estate.

Five Mile Brook has poor water quality. This is due to sandy soil, which does not retain nutrients well, and extensive grazing agriculture in the catchment.

Water sampling by local school groups has found evidence of macroinvertebrates, tadpoles and turtles.

Gynudup

The Gynudup Brook catchment consists of two main tributaries; Tren Creek and Gynudup Brook. The headwaters of Gynudup Brook are in State Forest, which then flow across agricultural land before connecting with the Capel River west of Bussell highway.

The hydrology of the catchment has been extensively modified, containing many artificial drains to alleviate water logging in winter months. Most of the catchment is cleared for agriculture, and the waterways suffer from poor water quality.

Despite being significantly altered, the waterways in the Gynudup catchment provide refuge for several native species including freshwater shrimp, Western Minnow, Blue Spot Goby, Nightfish, Gilgie and the Long-necked Turtle.

Capel

The Capel River is the largest and only perennial river in the Geographe Bay Catchment, receiving groundwater discharge from the Leederville aquifer year-round. Several foreshore reserves of conservation value are situated on the Capel River, including Ironstone Gully Falls.

Land use of the upper Capel River catchment is predominately native vegetation and beef farming. The lower catchment is dominated by beef and dairy farming with pockets of native vegetation and horticulture. The townsites of Capel and Peppermint Grove Beach also occur in the catchment.

The Capel River has relatively good water quality. Carters Freshwater, Smooth Marron, Gilgie, Freshwater Cobbler, Nightfish, Western Pygmy Perch, Western Minnow and Pouched Lamprey can be found in the catchment.

Ludlow

The Ludlow River is the only major waterway to discharge to the Wonnerup Estuary. Its upper catchment lies in the Whicher National Park, after which it flows across the coastal plain through grazing and dairy farmland, horticulture and turf farms.

These land uses contribute nutrients to the river, which suffers from poor water quality. There has been, however, a decreasing trend in nutrient concentrations in the river since 2011.

The Ludlow River retains native aquatic fauna including the Gilgie, Freshwater Shrimp, Nightfish, Western Minnow, Western Pygmy Perch and the Blue Spot Goby.

Abba

The Abba River begins in the Millbrook State Forest, flowing seasonally across the Swan Coastal Plain, through the Ludlow Tuart Forest and eventually into the Vasse Estuary. Landuse in the Abba sub-catchment is predominantly beef and dairy farming, with smaller amounts of sheep farming, vineyards and horticulture.

Ecological surveys of the river have found a diversity of native fish and freshwater crayfish including the Western Minnow, Nightfish, Blue-spot Goby, Western Pygmy Perch, Gilgie and Freshwater Shrimp.

The Abba River is categorised as an ‘intervention’ sub-catchment for water quality, where it meets phosphorus targets, but not nitrogen. Fertiliser for pasture is the largest source of nutrients to the river. We work with landholders and our partners to reduce these nutrients by fencing waterways, fertiliser management and dairy effluent upgrades.

Sabina

The Lower Sabina River flows into the Vasse Estuary. It is separated from its upper catchment, which is diverted into the Vasse Diversion Drain.

The Lower Sabina catchment is small, mostly cleared, with agricultural landuses dominated by dairy and beef farming. The river contributes a significant amount of nutrients to the Vasse-Wonnerup Wetlands.

The river supports Gilgie, Southwest Glass Shrimp, Nightfish, Western Minnow, Western Pygmy Perch and the Blue Spot Goby.

Lower Vasse

The Lower Vasse River flows through the centre of Busselton, extending from the Vasse Diversion Drain at its headwaters, to the Vasse Delta Wetlands at the downstream boundary. The river receives winter flow from the Vasse Diversion Drain through a 900 mm culvert.

The lower catchment is dominated by urban, residential development, while the upper catchment is primarily beef grazing.

The Vasse River suffers from poor water quality and in summer months experiences regular algal blooms. Despite these water quality problems, the Lower Vasse River retains significant ecological values, including a high diversity of fish and native crayfish.

Vasse Diversion

The Vasse Diversion Drain receives water from approximately 60% of the Sabina River catchment and 90% of the Vasse River catchment, diverting flow away from the Vasse-Wonnerup Wetlands and directly into Geographe Bay. These rivers were diverted in the 1920s to protect the Busselton townsite from flooding. The headwaters of these rivers originate in the Whicher Range, then flow across the coastal plain to the diversion drain and eventually to Geographe Bay in West Busselton.

The Vasse Diversion Drain catchment suffers from poor water quality, with phosphorus and nitrogen inputs high. Most nutrients come from the dominant land uses of beef and dairy farming, and smaller amounts from the Busselton wastewater treatment plant.

The upper Vasse and Sabina rivers retain important natural values, including several species of freshwater fish and crayfish. The lower section of the drain near Geographe Bay has important social and recreational value to the community.

Carbunup

The headwaters of the Carbunup River begin on the Whicher Scarp in the Treeton State forest. The river flows in a northerly direction through agricultural land before discharging into Geographe Bay near Siesta Park.

The upper reaches of the river are densely vegetated, however the lower reaches have been cleared and straightened into Lennox River Drain. A weir at the junction of the river and drain prevents saltwater from impacting arable farmland. Due to the dense riparian vegetation and high phosphorus retention index (PRI) of the soil, the Carbunup river has relatively good water quality.

A diverse range of aquatic fauna rely on permanent pools of water that provide refuge over warmer months. Carter’s Freshwater Mussel and Western Pygmy Perch have both been recorded in the river.

Annie

The Annie Brook catchment has three streams – Station Gully, Annie Brook and Mary Brook. These streams begin on the Whicher Scarp and Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge, before flowing to the coastal plain where they are artificially straightened into drains that converge at Station Gully before entering Geographe Bay.

The catchment features remnant native vegetation, including some poorly represented vegetation complexes. On the coastal plain, the catchment is mostly cleared for beef farming and smaller amounts of horticulture and viticulture. These land uses contribute nutrients to waterways, particularly nitrogen.

The endangered Dunsborough burrowing crayfish is known to occur in the waterways of the catchment, and surveys have also shown a variety of including the Gilgie, Marron, Nightfish, Western Minnow the Western Pygmy Perch.

Toby Inlet

Toby Inlet is located east of Dunsborough and runs parallel to the coast. It is surrounded by residential areas and is of social and recreational importance to the local community and visitors.

Land use in the wider catchment consists mostly of large rural properties and agriculture. A series of headwaters, originating on the Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge, flow across the coastal plain where they become poorly defined. The mouth of the Inlet closes naturally over summer but is opened by the City of Busselton to maintain flushing, as nitrogen levels are currently high.

The Inlet provides habitat for the Swan River Goby, Gilgie and the Dunsborough burrowing crayfish, as well as waterbirds and frogs.

Dunsborough

The Dunsborough streams include Meelup, Dolugup, Dandatup and Dugulup Brooks. Although relatively small and seasonal, the streams are significant to the local community.

They currently maintain good water quality due to their low nitrogen and phosphorus levels. However, the streams are at risk from nutrient runoff primarily from urban and rural-residential sources, including septics, due to their proximity to the Dunsborough townsite.

The streams provide a diversity of habitat and food sources for native fauna and are known to support the Gilgie (Dandatup and Dugulup Brooks), Marron (Meelup Brook) and the Blue Spot Goby (Meelup Brook).

Jingarmup

Jingarmup Brook is a small waterway that flows seasonally across the eastern slopes of the Leeuwin Naturaliste Ridge, through the Eagle Bay townsite to Geographe Bay.

The Jingarmup Brook catchment is categorised as an ‘intervention’ catchment, meeting phosphorus targets but not nitrogen. Native vegetation and beef farming are the dominant land uses in this catchment, which is the southern most region of the Geographe Bay Catchment. 

Water quality is impacted by septics, which contribute a significant amount of the phosphorus load to the waterway, and farming practices. Nitrogen levels are currently high in this waterway. The Meelup Regional Park Management Committee have made significant efforts to restore the riparian zone on lower section of the brook, which supports local biodiversity.